Does the morphologic stage of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment affect postoperative retinal recovery?


– The study aimed to evaluate outer retinal recovery on postoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on the presenting morphologic stage of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).
– Retrospective analysis of 351 patients with fovea-involving RRDs.
– Increasing baseline morphologic stage of RRD was significantly associated with external limiting membrane, ellipsoid zone, and interdigitation zone discontinuity at all postoperative time points.
– Earlier stages of RRD were associated with residual subfoveal fluid.
– Late stages of RRD presented with earlier development of epiretinal membrane.
– The study suggests that the morphologic stages of RRD may serve as a prognostic biomarker for postoperative photoreceptor recovery.

DOI: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000004034

What are the efficacy and safety outcomes of different drainage methods during pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment?

– The article is a systematic review and meta-analysis on surgical drainage methods during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).
– The study included 2 randomized trials and 5 observational studies, with a total of 1,524 eyes.
– The results showed that there were no significant differences in final best-corrected visual acuity and primary reattachment rates across different drainage methods.
– Draining subretinal fluid through preexisting retinal breaks or using perfluorocarbon liquid was associated with a lower risk of epiretinal membrane formation compared to posterior retinotomy.
– The use of perfluorocarbon liquid was associated with a significantly greater risk of abnormal foveal contour compared to posterior retinotomy.
– The authors concluded that there is limited information on the optimal drainage method during PPV for RRD, and further research is needed.

Evaluation of prone vs supine positioning in fresh rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy and gas

Retina. 2024 Mar 8. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000004075. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: To compare Supine versus Prone positioning in fresh rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) treated with vitrectomy and gas tamponade.

METHODS: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial of 72 eyes with fresh RRD who underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy.

37 eyes were allotted supine position and 35 were allotted prone position. Cases were evaluated for single surgery reattachment rates, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), cataract formation and any complications. The patients were followed up for a period of 3 months.

RESULTS: Both groups had similar demographics, and no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of extent of retinal detachment, position and number of breaks.

The anatomical success after single surgery was 97.3% in Supine group and 94.3% in Prone group (p=0.609).

The BCVA at the end of 3 months was 0.44 ± 0.27 in Supine group and 0.35 ± 0.27 in Prone group (p=0.119) with a significant increase in BCVA preoperatively from 0.11 ± 0.22 and 0.13 ± 0.22 in Supine and Prone group respectively (p=<0.001).

The IOP in the two groups was comparable at each follow up.

The rates of cataract formation were also similar in the two groups – 60% and 53.8% in Supine and Prone group respectively(p=1.00).

Complications such as spikes in IOP, epiretinal membrane formation, cystoid macular oedema etc were similar in both groups.

CONCLUSION: Rates of retinal reattachment were comparable in both groups, showing that supine position is equally safe and effective for adequate tamponade.

PMID:38470916 | DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000004075

ChatGPT-4 Shows Promise in Interpreting Ophthalmic Images, But Needs Improvement

This study explored the ability of the new ChatGPT-4 chatbot to interpret ophthalmic images and answer related questions.

Key Findings:

  • ChatGPT-4 achieved an accuracy of 70% in answering multiple-choice questions based on multimodal imaging of ophthalmic cases.
  • Performance was better for retinal images (77%) compared to other areas like neuro-ophthalmology (58%).
  • The chatbot performed better on non-image-based questions (82%) compared to those requiring image interpretation (65%).


  • ChatGPT-4 shows potential as an aid for interpreting ophthalmic images, particularly in retinal diseases.
  • The model still requires improvement, especially for neuro-ophthalmology and image-heavy questions.
  • Further research is needed to ensure reliable integration of such chatbots into clinical practice.

Important Considerations:

  • The study used a public dataset which might not reflect real-world complexity.
  • Ethical considerations regarding reliance on AI for diagnosis need to be addressed.
  • Regulatory frameworks may be necessary for safe clinical implementation.

Overall, this study highlights the potential of AI for ophthalmic image analysis, but also emphasizes the need for ongoing development and responsible use.

Faricimab Shows Similar Efficacy and Durability to Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration (nAMD)

This study compared the efficacy, durability, and safety of faricimab to aflibercept for treating nAMD.

Key Findings:

  • Both faricimab and aflibercept achieved similar improvements in vision over 2 years.
  • Faricimab allowed for longer treatment intervals compared to aflibercept, with most patients achieving 16-week or 12-week dosing intervals by year 2.
  • Safety profiles were comparable between the two drugs.


  • Faricimab could be a viable alternative to aflibercept for treating nAMD, potentially offering greater convenience due to less frequent injections.
  • Further research is needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of faricimab in this patient population.

Disclaimer: This is a summary of the research and is not intended as medical advice. Please consult a qualified healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment.

Key findings of the study on automated diabetic retinopathy detection using OCT:

  • OCT can be used to identify biomarkers for diabetic retinopathy (DR).
  • This study focused on retinal layer smoothness index (SI) and area (S) as quantifiable biomarkers.
  • Significant differences were found in INL and ONL area in the foveal zone across normal, non-proliferative (NPDR), and proliferative (PDR) DR groups.
  • IPL and OPL border SI in the nasal and temporal regions also showed significant differences between groups.
  • Best accuracy (87.6%) for distinguishing DR patients from normal was achieved using INL area in the foveal zone.
  • Most accurate (97.2%) for differentiating PDR from NPDR was achieved using IPL SI in the nasal zone.
  • Temporal zone IPL SI also showed good accuracy (89.8%) in identifying NPDR.


  • This study suggests that automated OCT analysis using SI and S can be a valuable tool for DR detection and classification.
  • Identifying biomarkers in the nasal and temporal regions might be particularly useful for differentiating NPDR from PDR.
  • Further research is needed to explore the application of these findings in larger and more diverse populations.
  • Understanding the evolution of DR and its impact on retinal layer irregularity could lead to improved detection and management strategies.


This summary is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. Please consult a qualified healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment of any medical condition.

Nonarteritic Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: Exploring Visual Recovery and Prognosis

This study investigated the factors affecting visual acuity (VA) outcomes in patients with nonarteritic central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), a condition causing sudden vision loss.

Key Findings:

  • Most patients experience significant vision loss: At diagnosis, nearly 90% of patients had vision worse than 20/200, indicating severe impairment.
  • Earlier presentation doesn’t guarantee better recovery: Presenting within 4.5 hours of symptom onset did not improve final vision results.
  • Conservative treatment doesn’t seem to help: Practices like anterior chamber paracentesis or ocular massage did not show a significant impact on outcomes.
  • Need for better treatment options: The study emphasizes the lack of effective treatments and underscores the need for further research.


  • This study confirms the challenging nature of managing CRAO and the limited effectiveness of current approaches.
  • Early diagnosis remains crucial even though it may not translate directly to better vision outcomes.
  • Researchers should focus on developing more effective treatment options to improve patient outcomes in the future.

Disclaimer: This summary is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. Please consult a qualified healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment of any medical condition.

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: Visual Outcomes from a Large Northern California Cohort – PubMed (

Key Takeaways from the Study on OCT Biomarkers for Predicting AMD Progression

This study provides valuable insights for clinicians and researchers by identifying the most relevant OCT prognostic biomarkers for predicting progression from early/intermediate to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Key Findings:

  • Among over 100 OCT biomarkers, 7 showed significant predictive power for AMD progression:
    • External limiting membrane abnormality
    • Ellipsoid zone abnormality
    • Interdigitation zone abnormality
    • Concurrent large drusen and reticular pseudodrusen
    • Hyporeflective drusen cores
    • Intraretinal hyperreflective foci
    • Large drusen
  • These biomarkers offer greater predictive ability compared to relying solely on large drusen.
  • Specific biomarkers were associated with higher risk for geographic atrophy or neovascularization, different subtypes of late AMD.
  • Further research is needed to validate other promising biomarkers and explore the combined predictive power of multiple markers.


  • This study empowers clinicians to better identify patients at high risk of AMD progression, enabling earlier intervention and potentially improved outcomes.
  • Researchers can focus their efforts on investigating and validating promising biomarkers with high predictive potential.
  • Understanding the combined effects of multiple biomarkers could lead to even more accurate risk prediction models.

Overall, this study highlights the crucial role of OCT technology in AMD diagnosis and management. By harnessing the power of these biomarkers, clinicians and researchers can work towards preventing vision loss and improving patient outcomes.

Disclaimer: This summary is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. Please consult a qualified healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment of any medical condition.

OCT Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression to Late Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis – PubMed (

Early Intervention Key for Better Outcomes in Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

This study investigates how the severity of retinal detachment, assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT), impacts treatment outcomes. The findings underscore the importance of early intervention for better visual recovery.

Key Takeaways:

  • OCT identifies different stages of retinal detachment.
  • Worse pre-surgical stage (higher number) is associated with poorer vision both before and after surgery.
  • In acute detachments, early stages (1, 2, 3a) have significantly better vision at 12 months compared to later stages (3b, 4, 5).
  • Stage 3b seems to be a critical turning point where retinal damage becomes more severe, leading to worse visual outcomes.


  • Earlier surgery for stages 1, 2, 3a might improve long-term vision.
  • OCT staging can help guide treatment decisions and patient expectations.
  • More research is needed to understand the specific mechanisms responsible for different outcomes in each stage.

Overall, this study highlights the value of OCT in assessing retinal detachment severity and the importance of prompt intervention for optimal visual recovery.

Disclaimer: This summary is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. Please consult a qualified healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment of any medical condition.

Impact of Baseline Morphologic Stage of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment on Post-operative Visual Acuity – PubMed (

Reticular Pseudodrusen in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Unveiling Hidden Connections

This study sheds light on the mysterious reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) found in some patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It investigates how these deposits are distributed, their impact on vision, and how they change over time.

Key Findings:

  • RPD location: They mainly appear in the upper part of the retina, with the central area least affected.
  • RPD and vision: Larger RPD areas are associated with thinner maculas and poorer rod function, especially in the outer parts of the retina.
  • RPD progression: They tend to grow in size over time.
  • RPD and AMD severity: More severe AMD tends to have larger RPD areas.
  • RPD beyond the lesion: Even outside the visible RPD area, there might be widespread retinal changes affecting vision.


  • Understanding RPD distribution and its impact on vision can help predict patient outcomes and guide treatment decisions.
  • Measuring rod function at different retinal locations may be a valuable tool for assessing RPD’s impact.
  • Further research is needed to understand the causes of RPD and how to slow their progression.

Overall, this study highlights the complex nature of RPD and its link to AMD. By unraveling these connections, researchers can develop better strategies to preserve vision in patients with this condition.

Disclaimer: This summary is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. Please consult a qualified healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment of any medical condition.

Local and Global Associations of Reticular Pseudodrusen in Age-related Macular Degeneration – PubMed (