Special Thanks to Dr Rashidinia and Dr Ebrahimi
2021 Jul 27;S0161-6420(21)00552-2.
Complications Of Acute Posterior Vitreous Detachment
- PMID: 34324945
- DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.07.020
Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors for retinal tear (RT) or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) associated with acute, symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in a large comprehensive eye care setting.
Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Participants: A total of 8305 adult patients in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Healthcare System (KPNC) during calendar year 2018 who met inclusion criteria.
Methods: The KPNC electronic medical record was queried to capture acute, symptomatic PVD events. Each chart was reviewed to confirm diagnoses and capture specific data elements from the patient history and ophthalmic examination.
Main outcome measures: Presence of RT or RRD at initial presentation or within 1 year thereafter.
Results: Of 8305 patients who presented with acute PVD symptoms, 448 (5.4%) were diagnosed with RT and 335 (4.0%) were diagnosed with RRD. When considering variables available before examination, blurred vision (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; confidence interval [CI], 2.2-3.3), male sex (OR, 2.1; CI, 1.8-2.5), age < 60 years (OR, 1.8; CI, 1.5-2.1), prior keratorefractive surgery (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.3-2.0), and prior cataract surgery (OR, 1.4; CI, 1.2-1.8) were associated with higher risk of RT or RRD, whereas symptoms of flashes were mildly protective (OR, 0.8; CI, 0.7-0.9). Examination variables associated with a high risk of RT or RRD included vitreous pigment (OR, 57.0; CI, 39.7-81.7), vitreous hemorrhage (OR, 5.9; CI, 4.6-7.5), lattice degeneration (OR, 6.0; CI, 4.7-7.7), and visual acuity worse than 20/40 (OR, 3.0; CI, 2.5-3.7). Late RTs or RRDs occurred in 12.4% of patients who had vitreous hemorrhage, lattice degeneration, or a history of RT or RRD in the fellow eye at initial presentation but only 0.7% of patients without any of these 3 risk factors. Refractive error had an approximately linear relationship with age at presentation of PVD, with myopic patients presenting at a younger age (r = 0.4).
Conclusions: This study, based in a comprehensive eye care setting, found the rate of RT and RRD associated with acute PVD to be lower than rates previously reported by retina subspecialty practices. Several patient features strongly predicted the presence of initial and late complications of acute PVD.
Prednisolone And Ketorolac Vs Ketorolac Monotherapy Or Sub-Tenon Prophylaxis For Macular Thickening In Cataract Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial
- PMID: 34383010
- DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.2976
Importance: The choice of anti-inflammatory prophylaxis parallel to cataract surgery is important for patient safety and successful outcome of surgery, but which regimen to choose is contested.
Objectives: To determine whether a combination of prednisolone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye drops was superior in preventing increased central macular thickness (central subfield thickness [CST]) after uncomplicated cataract surgery compared with NSAID monotherapy and sub-Tenon capsule depot (dropless surgery), and to test whether preoperative initiation of eye drop treatment was superior to initiation on the day of surgery.
Design, setting, and participants: This investigator-driven, single-center, randomized clinical trial with masked statistical analyses enrolled patients at the Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark, from February 1, 2018, to August 15, 2019. Follow-up was completed December 18, 2019. Participants included low-risk patients undergoing phacoemulsification for age-related cataract by an experienced surgeon (1 eye per participant). Data were analyzed from February 17 to June 15, 2020.
Interventions: Participants scheduled for cataract removal were randomized to 1 of 5 anti-inflammatory prophylactic regimens: eye drops with a combination of prednisolone, 1%, and ketorolac tromethamine, 0.5%, with or without preoperative initiation (preoperative prednisolone plus NSAID [control] and postoperative prednisolone plus NSAID groups), ketorolac monotherapy with or without preoperative initiation (preoperative and postoperative NSAID groups), or sub-Tenon depot of dexamethasone phosphate (sub-Tenon group). Eye drops were administered 3 times per day until 3 weeks postoperatively.
Main outcomes and measures: CST 3 months postoperatively.
Results: A total of 470 participants (mean [SD] age, 72.2 [7.0] years; 290 women [61.7%]) with 94 participants in each group were included in the analysis. Three months after surgery, the mean CST was 250.7 (95% CI, 247.6-253.7) μm in the preoperative prednisolone plus NSAID group, 250.7 (95% CI, 247.8-253.7) μm in the postoperative prednisolone plus NSAID group, 251.3 (95% CI, 248.2-254.4) μm in the preoperative NSAID group, 249.2 (95% CI, 246.2-252.3) μm in the postoperative NSAID group, and 255.2 (95% CI, 252.0-258.3) μm in the sub-Tenon group. There were no significant differences in CST or visual acuity compared with control and no differences between preoperative and postoperative groups, but 47 of 83 participants (56.6%) in the sub-Tenon group needed additional anti-inflammatory treatment.
Conclusions and relevance: No differences in CST or visual acuity were detected between the combination of prednisolone and NSAID eye drops vs NSAID monotherapy or sub-Tenon dexamethasone depot, although more than one-half of patients in the sub-Tenon arm received additional anti-inflammatory treatment. Initiating prophylaxis 3 days preoperatively was not superior to initiation on the day of surgery. Monotherapy with NSAIDs may be preferred in uncomplicated cataract surgery.
Stroke Risk Before And After Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: A Population-Based Analysis
- PMID: 34303745
- DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.07.017
Purpose: To determine the risk of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and transient monocular vision loss (TMVL) before and after a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO).
Design: Population-based, retrospective case series.
Participants: Patients diagnosed with a CRAO in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 to 2016.
Methods: Patients living in Olmsted County with a diagnosis code of CRAO from 1976 to 2016 were reviewed. New CRAOs were confirmed, and stroke, TIA, and TMVL events in the 15 days before and after CRAO were recorded.
Main outcome measures: Incidence of stroke, TIA, and TMVL events in the 15 days before and after CRAO.
Results: Eighty-nine patients with a CRAO were identified, providing an annual incidence of 2.58/100 000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-3.11). Median age at the time of CRAO was 76 years (range, 46-100 years); 56.2% were male, and 89.9% of the cohort was White. In the 15 days before and after CRAO, there were 2 ischemic strokes (2.2%), 1 hemorrhagic stroke (1.1%), 2 TIAs (2.2%), and 9 TMVL events (10.1%). Starting in 1999, 15 of 45 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 2 months of CRAO. One patient (6.7%) had evidence of asymptomatic diffusion restriction, and 9 patients (60%) had a remote infarct.
Conclusions: This population-based study demonstrated that the risk of symptomatic ischemic stroke is 2.2% in the 15 days before and after a CRAO, which is slightly lower than most studies from tertiary centers. These data should be considered as practice recommendations are developed regarding the urgency of neurovascular workup in patients with acute CRAO.
Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy And The Ischemic Cascade Associated With Retinal Vascular Occlusion
- PMID: 30081014
- DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2018.07.031
Purpose: To analyze the spectrum of ischemia associated with paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) in eyes with acute retinal vascular occlusion and to describe an ischemic cascade.
Design: A retrospective observational case series.
Methods: Patients presenting with PAMM secondary to acute retinal vascular occlusion were identified. Analysis of multimodal imaging was performed at baseline and at follow-up visits to elucidate the patterns and progression of ischemia within the retinal layers.
Results: Multimodal retinal imaging from 16 eyes of 16 patients with acute retinal vascular occlusion associated with PAMM was studied. Analysis of en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) segmentation of the inner nuclear layer (INL) identified distinct patterns of PAMM correlating with the severity of ischemia and not the type of occlusion. A perivenular fern-like PAMM pattern was associated with better visual outcomes (average final visual acuity was 20/25). This pattern was noted to sequentially progress in 2 cases to a diffuse globular PAMM pattern in the INL, or to a pattern of ischemia involving both the middle and inner retinal layers with commensurate vision loss. Globular patterns of PAMM or ischemia involving both the middle and inner retina correlated with poorer visual outcomes (average final visual acuity was counting fingers at 5.5 ft). These various patterns of ischemia developed in eyes with retinal vascular occlusions in which blood flow through the retinal capillary plexuses was present but was significantly reduced and delayed.
Conclusions: This study describes OCT findings suggestive of an ischemic cascade in eyes with retinal vascular occlusion. The middle retina at the level of the deep capillary plexus, especially at the venular pole, may be more vulnerable to ischemic injury.